Thursday, May 19, 2016

High Blood Pressure or Hypertension

Hypertension is defined as blood pressure is higher than 140/ 90 mm Hg. This threshold of blood pressure has been set to define Hypertension for clinical conveniences as patients benefit once they bring their blood pressure below this level. 
Normal level of blood pressure is 120/80mm Hg.
Pre hypertension range is 120-139 or 80-89 mm hg.
Stage 1 Hypertension is 140 to 159 mm Hg systolic or 90 to 99 mm Hg diastolic .
Stage 2 Hypertension is 160 or higher systolic Or 100 or higher diastolic.
Hypertensive crisis is when blood pressure above 180mm Hg systolic or above 110mm Hg diastolic.

Causes of Hypertension are:1.Age :- everyone is at greater risk of  Hypertension as get older.
2. Size:- Being overweight or obese is key risk factor for Hypertension.
3. Sex:- Males are more prone in younger age and women at older age
4. Lifestyle:- Greater intake of dietary salt, Excessive alcohol, Low dietary  potassium, Physical inactivity, Hereditary causes and family history,  Chronic poorly managed stress
5.Other causes :- Diabetes Mellitus, Kidney diseases, Pheochromocytoma, Cushing syndrome, Congential abdominal hyperplasia , Hyperthyroidism, Hyperparathyroidism, Pregnancy, sleep apnea.

Symptoms: Hypertension per say does not causes symptoms but Hypertension can cause by quietly damaging Cardiovascular system.
·         It  causes Arteriosclerosis which means hardening of arterial walls , this will cause complications like Enlarged or weakened heart.
·         It can results in Aneurysm which is abnormal bulging  of wall of artery),
·         Blood vessel narrowing can cause Kidney failure, Heart failure,
·         It can  diminishes blood supply to brain and legs,
·         Stroke
·         Chronic Heart Diseases

High Blood Pressure is diagnosed by measuring Blood Pressure by using instrument named sphygmomanometer.

Treatment of hypertension: Lifestyle changes not only for treatment but also for prevention of diseases which includes Salt restriction, moderation of alcohol consumption, High consumption of vegetables and fruits and low fats. Reducing weight and maintaining it. Regular physical exercise. Stress reduction .Drug treatment for hypertension are diuretics, beta and alpha blockers, calcium channel blockers, central agonists, peripheral adrenergic inhibitors, vasodialtors, ACE inhibitors, Angiotensin receptive blockers,
Choice of the drugs depends upon individuals and any other condition they may have, while single drug is used in monotherapy but we can use combination for two drugs as and when they  are required.

Hypertension and Stroke:
Stroke:- is a disease that affects the blood vessels supplying the brain. Stroke occurs when blood vessel is blocked by clot is called ischemic stroke , or blood vessels bursts and bleeds into brain parenchyma hemorrhagic stroke. High blood pressure can damage arteries throughout the body. About 87% of strokes are ischemic and 13 % of stroke are hemorrhagic stroke.

Warning sign are FAST:
F Face dropping to one side, Ask the person to smile , Is person’s smile uneven ?
A Arm weakness, one arm will be weak or numb, Ask person to raise both the arms, does one arm drift downwards?
S Speech Difficulty, Is speech slurred? Is person unable to speak or hard to understand?
T Time to call , its emergency.

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